Chapter IX. Rise of the Two Horned Earth Beast

And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon. And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed. And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men, And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; (Rev 13:11-14)

Chapter 13 of the Revelation is an overview of the life, machinations, and affiliations of the greatest and most enduring of the final world dominating powers or beasts created by mortal man from its very rise until it goes to perdition with its revived head and supporting companions, the Earth Beast and its Image.

§ 1. Attributes of the Earth Beast Prefigured in the Vision.

Lets examine the mentioned attributes of this beast power from the divine text itself and see if we can find a candidate in subsequent history that satisfies all of the criteria following.[1] Here we refer to our previous Chapter IV, § 1, part II discussion which identifies this new Beast Power, with the Seventh King-Beast of Revelation 17:9-11, and the attributes enumerated there:

  1. He “is not yet come”:

Here is a direct future tense reference to an appearance of a seventh King-Beast Power that did not previously exist, future from the present tense of John receiving the revelation, and future from the “one is” then in existence: the sixth King-Beast already identified as Rome. Revelation 13 has the only mention of the appearance of a additional and subsequent Beast Power in the scripture, so must be the same Beast Power mentioned in both texts;

  1. And, when he cometh, “he must continue a short space.”

Still directing us to the future tense, the author asserts the continuance of this Beast Power must be relatively short in comparison to the other Beast powers before it, or at least the one immediately preceding and contemporary with it.

We now turn back to our primary text above. Revelation 13:11-14:

  1. This Beast comes “up out of the earth”:

First we notice that this Beast does not rise up out of the sea as did the four previous Beast Powers. The sea: waters or flood, each respectively indicating multitudes or a densely populated area, such as the Old World, and conquest by warfare or the sword; this Earth Beast would rise up without conquest of the Beast preceding it, nor would it occupy the highly populated locality of the preceding Sea Beast Powers.

  1. he had two horns like a lamb”:

For reference, averting our attention to the division of the Greek Empire with its singular horn being broke off[2] and supplanted by four horns, signifying a new four-fold division; and the ten horns of the concurrent Sea Beast three being plucked before the little horn, etc.: We expect to see something representing a twofold division of power during the continuance of this Earth Beast.

It’s being described as like a lamb may be an indicator of one of those horns, or a division of power and the other indicated by our next attribute:

  1. he spake as a dragon.”

This Dragon Influence or division would be concurrent throughout the life of this Beast Power with the two horns, as we notice no change or one horn being plucked up by another as in the Grecian and Roman Empire Beasts previous to it. This Beast may be somewhat schizophrenic with a constant power struggle between its lamb like qualities and dragon like conversation, especially in its support of the Sea Beast which derives its power[3] from the Dragon or Satan, the god of this world.

  1. he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him

In its history the Roman Empire ruled the then known world and all of its civilizations; it had military outposts in many of those nations; it was the police power of the world. This is the kind of power that will be necessary to fulfill the following tasks (7-14) set forth in the vision for this Earth Beast Power:

  1. causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast

This is an overview of the end result and motivation of this horn division in the following actions or, in the biblical sense, its dragon conversation. He uses the following feats to accomplish world obedience to the First Beast.

  1. doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men.”

In the context, this power is military, an overwhelming military power, and contemporarily, this means fire-power.

  1. deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast

Here we continue the theme of an overwhelming military power that would seem miraculous by any historical standard,

  1. saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast

So much so this power, that the world will easily capitulate to the assembly of The Image of the Beast, and eventual world obedience to it.

  1. he had power to give life unto the image of the beast

The end result of the wonder, power, and miraculous machinations of this Earth Beast lead to the next step of worship or obedience to the Image of the Beast that was, and is not, and yet is,[4] which will vicariously rule the world through the construct of this Image.

  1. and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed.”

Indicating that this Second Beast’s dragon actions must be the primary enforcement arm of the image it creates.

  1. And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark” “that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark…”

The object of this last attribute will be the topic of our subsequent Section 4.

§ 2. Identity of the Earth Beast Prefigured in the Vision.

Now we look to recent history, and it seems so obvious, so wonderfully fulfilled, that only one candidate among the Prominent Powers of the world stands out immediately as fulfilling every criteria of this Two Horned Earth Beast in every detail prefigured in the apocalyptic vision, here we expound upon them one point at a time:

1. America had “not yet come” at the reception of the Revelation by John, the New World where this power appeared was an unknown. Upon the punishment and wounding “as it were to death” of that head of the Sea Beast, a dominion that lasted for 1260 years under that head, and about 1200 years before that from its pagan beginnings about the eighth century B.C., the Papal Power and its Holy Roman Empire seemed to disappear (was and is not, yet is), by 1870 it seemed only a powerless shadow of it remained.

2. America rises in the New World about the same time of the wounding of the Roman Papal Head and has now existed a little more than 200 years in its current Constitutional form.[5] How much time can this Beast Power continue before it exceeds the “short space” qualification. Exactly what is “a short space” in context of the prophecy? Even if Christ were not to appear for several hundred years more, America’s time would be a short space by comparison.

3. America comes “up out of the earth”: rather than the sea, representing peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues, where the four previous beast powers rose up; this beast rises out of the New World, sparsely populated by comparison. There is no conquest or necessity of assimilation as noticed in the previous consecutive sea beast powers, so that this power can come along side of and support the Sea Beast as predicted.

4. “he had two horns like a lamb” and; 5. “he spake as a dragon.”

“When a tenth part of the Papal Kingdom fell,[6] which tenth E. B. Elliot identifies as the falling away of Protestant England from the Papal States, many had been fleeing to the New World to escape religious persecution and Papal Inquisition in the same place where Protestant England eventually established thirteen colonies. Canada to the North was a Crown Colony of the Sovereign City of London. Mexico down through all of South America (Latin America) was conquered on behalf of the Vatican by the Papal vassals of Portugal and Spanish Conquistadores.

In the New World the only Power that rose up and came to exhibit all of the attributes of the Revelation 13 Earth Beast is the one that developed out of the thirteen colonies planted by Protestant England: The United States America.”[7]

These horns appear to be life long polar opposites as indicated, they coexist without change during the continuence of the Earth Beast: “These two horns demonstrate two equal and opposing powers at the origin of this Beast: lamb like and draconic in speech. The American Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the United States, on November 15, 1777. The present Constitution for the United States was written during the Constitutional Convention, those that opposed it were able to get the Bill Of Rights attached to it to preserve those liberties, it was signed on September 17, 1787.  Tupper Saussy, in his book, Rulers Of Evil unquestionably exposes the hidden secret influence in the establishment of the U.S. Constitution and more specifically the concentration of power in the newly created head of this Beast, the Sovereign City of the District of Columbia. Though this power was founded upon many Godly or lamb like principles, the draconic influence would eventually turn it to come alongside the draconic power of the Sea Beast that infected it at its inception. The History of this alliance between these two Beasts is foretold in the 13th chapter of the Revelation.”[8]

6. “he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him”

It would take two World Wars centered around the dominant locality of the wounded head to lure this Earth Beast into its predicted apocalyptic position of help and support for the Sea Beast.

“It is not insignificant that about the same time this First Beast receives it’s deadly head wound that the Second Beast rises in the New World and in time comes to exercise all of the powers of the First Beast before it until it finally, “causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.” It is all too evident that America is changing just as the Scripture indicates that it would as this Second or Earth Beast. As the Roman Empire was once the visible Police Power of the world, so today America, since WWII, has emerged as the Police Power of the world, and …exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him.”[9]

“Despite recently closing hundreds of bases in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States still maintains nearly 800 military bases in more than 70 countries and territories abroad—from giant “Little Americas” to small radar facilities. Britain, France and Russia, by contrast, have about 30 foreign bases combined.”[10]

The remainder of this Beast’s attributes or actions are the topic of our next two sections following.

§ 3. The Earth Beast Creates an Image.

[He] causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed. And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men, And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live. (Rev 13:12-14)

Principle in our search for a divine interpretation on the symbol here used, that of an Image of a Beast Power, is that found in Daniel chapter two in the first appearance of the Mystery Bablylon Image from Nebuchadnezzar’s dream. In the first we see an image of all of the powers that would dominate the world from the first enumerated Sea Beast, that is Babylon its head, which demanded worship of its own Image in the plain of Dura,[11] until this amalgamation of the four sea beast powers goes to perdition at the return of Christ. In this second, end time Image, we see the amalgamation of all of the powers of the earth, in their final conquest of the whole earth, which will come to demand the worship of all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond.[12] It is through this image that the wounded head’s healing is complete and through which it can vicariously rule the world, and cause them that dwell on the earth to wonder, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is.[13]

We have learned from Bible History and at the temptations of Christ,[14] that it is Satan who comes to dominate all of the kingdoms of mortal men, regardless of the best beginnings. So with the Dragon Power firmly intrenched in the Government of America in The New World, World War One is initiated and America lured to engage the conflict in the First Beast locality, that is The Old World, after which the first attempt to create an Image of the Sea Beast ultimately failed: The League Of Nations, “an intergovernmental organization founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.”[15] America is not yet ready, but is certainly on the way to becoming the most powerful nation on earth. “The onset of the Second World War showed that the League had failed its primary purpose, which was to prevent any future world war. The League lasted for 26 years; the United Nations (UN) replaced it after the end of the Second World War…”[16]

World War Two in the same 20th century fully develops American fire power in sight of the entire earth. America concludes WWII with a miraculous fire power previously unseen, the Atomic Bomb, against which none dare make war. By the means of those miracles which he had power to do, America convinced the world that they should make an image to the beast. This new Image, “The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II with the aim of preventing another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193 [as of 2018]. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City…”[17] The United Nations is the New World order. America did not join the former League Of Nations, but is a founding member of the UN. “The UN Charter was drafted at a conference between April-June 1945 in San Francisco, and was signed on 26 June 1945 at the conclusion of the conference; this charter took effect on 24 October 1945, and the UN began operation.”[18]

“The organization’s membership grew significantly following widespread decolonization[19] in the 1960s, and by the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military and peacekeeping missions across the world with varying degrees of success.”[20] America, with its 800 miltary outposts worldwide is the primary police power of the UN. Following is a Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015 for: Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development:

Sustainable Development Goals

Goal 1.   End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Goal 2.   End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Goal 3.   Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

Goal 4.   Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

Goal 5.   Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Goal 6.   Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

Goal 7   Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

Goal 8.   Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

Goal 9.   Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Goal 10.  Reduce inequality within and among countries

Goal 11.  Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Goal 12.  Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Goal 13.  Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*

Goal 14.  Conserve  and  sustainably  use  the  oceans, seas  and  marine

resources for sustainable development

Goal 15.  Protect,  restore  and  promote  sustainable use  of  terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

Goal 16.  Promote  peaceful  and  inclusive  societies for  sustainable development,  provide  access  to  justice  for  all  and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

Goal 17.  Strengthen  the  means  of  implementation  and  revitalize  the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development[21]

“As you can see, this list goes far beyond saving the environment or fighting climate change.

It truly covers just about every realm of human activity.

Another thing that makes this new sustainable development agenda different is the unprecedented support that it is getting from the Vatican and from Pope Francis himself.”[22]

“Under this Pope, the Vatican has become much more political than it was before, and sustainable development has become the Vatican’s number one political issue.

And did you notice the language about “the world’s religions acting in unison”? Clearly, the Vatican believes that it has the power to mobilize religious leaders all over the planet and have them work together to achieve the “UN’s sustainable development goals”.

I can never remember a time when the United Nations and the largest religious institution on the planet, the Catholic Church, have worked together so closely.

So what will the end result of all this be?

Should we be concerned about this new sustainable development agenda?”[23]

Beyond chapter 13 of the Revelation the Scripture makes no further telling exposition of the Image of the Beast; but can one even imagine, what more needs to be said? If we have not here spoken the truth, then what else could it possibly be?

§ 4. The Mark of the Beast, its Name and Number.

And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.[24] (Rev 13:16-18)

It is not quite clear whether the second Beast, or the Image, be the nominative to the verb causeth, with which the passage before us opens. Nor is it material. For the Image is but the mouthpiece of the second Beast; and the second Beast the agent or superintendent, in order to the fulfillment of the enactments of the Image. We may perhaps prefer to understand it, in common with most other interpreters, as the second Beast. As to the requirement that all should be made to receive on their right hand, or on their forehead, the mark, name, or number of the Beast, it has been so well and fully illustrated by former commentators (especially in what regards the number)[25] from customs prevalent in the Roman world about the time of St. John, and its application to the Papacy has been so clearly shown, that I have little more to do in the present Chapter than to abridge from them.

I. Illustration of the use of marks for identification in the Roman world:

It appears then that it was common at the time of St. John, and indeed both long before and long after, for three classes of persons to have certain stigma (στιγματα) or marks of appropriation, imprinted on them, viz. Slaves, soldiers, and the devotees of one and another god; — that the impression was generally on the forehead or the hand; — and that the mark was sometimes the simple name or characteristic emblem of the master or the god, sometimes (in the devotee’s case) the god’s particular hieroglyphic number. Thus, as examples of the mark or name, it was with the Sicilian emblem of a horse that the enslaved Athenians were branded on the forehead in Sicily.[26] It was with the master’s name or mark that Roman slaves were stigmatized on their foreheads;[27] and the Emperor’s name or mark that Roman soldiers bore imprinted on their hand.[28] Further, among devotees, those of the god Bacchus are specified as branding themselves at times with the ivy-leaf, sacred to him.[29] To which I may add the example of the Hindu’s, marked even to the present day on the forehead with the hieroglyphic of the god they are consecrated to.

As to inscription with a particular number, as sacred, this was either some simple number, consecrated to the devotee’s god, according to the Pythagorean and Platonic mysteries of numbers;[30]— or perhaps the number of the letters in his name [31]— or, as it might be, the number made up of the numeral values of the constituent letters of the name. Now it is evident that it is the last kind of number which is here intended as “the number of the Beast.” For it is elsewhere called “the number of his name:”[32] and that this cannot mean the number of letters in his name, may be inferred from the largeness of the enigmatic number: for who can suppose a name containing 666 letters?[33] It is therefore this last method of mystic numbering which alone seems here to call for illustration.[34] It was called by the Greeks, numeral equality (ισοψηφια): such calculations being made for the most part according to the Greek value of the constituent letters of the name; though sometimes according to their value in Hebrew, also. And the usage appears to have obtained very largely alike among Heathen Greeks, pseudo-Christian Gnostics, and even Christian Fathers; not to say also among Jewish Cabbalists.

Thus, among the Heathens, the Egyptian mystics spoke of Mercury, or Thouth, under the number 1218, because the Greek letters composing the name Thouth, when estimated according to their numerical value, together made up that number.[35] By others Jupiter was evoked under the mystical number 717; because the letters of ’HAPXH, the Beginning, or First Origin, which was a characteristic title of the Supreme Deity worshiped as Jupiter, made up that number:[36] and Apollo under the number 608, as being that of ηυς or ύης , words expressing certain solar attributes.[37]  Again, the pseudo-Christian or semi-Pagan Gnostics, from St. John’s time downwards, affixed to their gems and amulets, of which multitudes remain even to the present day,[38] the mystic word αβρασαξ or αβραξας: under the idea of some magic virtue attaching to its number 365,[39] as being that of the days of the annual solar cycle; and equal moreover with that of Μειθρας or Mithras, the Magian name for the Sun, whom they identified also with Christ.[40]

Once more,[41] the Christian Fathers themselves fell into the same fancies, and doctrine of mysteriousness in certain verbal numbers. For example, both Barnabas and Clement of Alexandria speak of the virtue of the number 318 as being that of IHT,[42] the common abbreviation for Jesus crucified; and partly ascribe to its magical virtue the victory that Abraham gained with his 318 servants over the Canaanite kings.[43] Similarly Tertullian refers the victory of Gideon with his 300 men [44] to the circumstance of that being the number of T, the sign of the cross.[45] In the name Adam another father thought to see a mysterious numeral affinity to certain characteristics in the life and history of the second Adam, Jesus Christ.[46] Irenaeus notes the remarkable number 888 of the name Ιησους, Jesus.[47] And in the pseudo-Sybilline verses, written by Christians about the end probably of the second century,[48] and consequently not long after Irenaeus, we find (besides other exemplifications of this verbal numeration)[49] enigmas proposed of precisely the same character as that in the text; — the number being given, and the name required. I subjoin an example or two below.[50] — It will have been observed that when a numeral mark of this kind was worn or used by a man, it was generally under the idea of its constituting a charm and defense from evil.[51]

II. I now proceed to show the Application of all this to the Papacy:

1. As to the Beast’s name and its Papal application. The prophetic statement is thus made in numerical enigma: Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the Beast: for it is the number of a man: and his number is six hundred threescore and six.

There are here two things to be premised. First, the number 666 given in the usual text is unquestionably correct (χξς´). For Irenaeus in the most positive manner so states it,[52] and also Hippolytus;[53] nor, of the many solutions suggested by the Fathers, is there any one founded on any other number.[54]

2. There is the highest probability of the language and number of the word meant being Greek, and not Hebrew: because the Apocalypse was intended for the use of Gentiles, to whom Hebrew was scarcely known; because the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet are expressly selected by Christ in the Apocalypse, and not those of the Hebrew, to express his eternity, “I am Α and Ω saith the Lord;[55] because the numerals in which the enigma is expressed; χξς’ are Greek numerals; and because Irenaeus directly asserts,[56] and all the other early Fathers imply, by making their solutions in Greek, that that was understood by them to be the language intended by the Divine Spirit.[57] Other languages besides Greek and Hebrew I conceive to be out of the question. More especially in the imperfect numerals of the Latin language there is no example so early.[58]

These two things premised, we proceed to the solution of the enigma, and inference of the name from the number given. Nor can I conceive any name more appropriate, and in every point satisfactory, than the famous name (Λατεινος), given by Irenaeus; itself “the name of a man,” viz. Of the father of the Latin race, Latinus,[59] and of which the numeral value is exactly 666. “It seems to me,” he says, “very probable: since this is a name of the last of Daniel’s four kingdoms; they being Latins that now reign.”[60] He mentions besides, it is true, two other names in the way of solution: one, Ευανθας only in passing; the other Τειταν, under an impression of its being, even yet more probably than, Λατεινος the word meant; because judged by him to be a fit name for the last Roman ruler, in other words Antichrist, before the grand consummation. But the reasons he offers seem comparatively insufficient.[61]

And Hippolytus, his disciple and follower not very long after, both in the episcopate and in martyrdom, urges the probability of the same name Λατεινος, with much more distinctness and decision of judgment in its favor. And this for the very reason previously suggested by Irenaeus; viz. That it was the name of the holders of the fourth prophetic empire: which empire he knew was to continue, though changed, and under the new heading of Antichrist, till Christ’s second coming to take the kingdom with his saints. “It is manifest to all,” he says, when speaking of the new Head accruing to the Roman Beast, after the healing of its deadly wound. “For they who now reign are Latins (Λατεινοι): and the name, transmuted into that of an individual, becomes Λατεινος.[62]

I shall presently have to show the peculiar appropriateness in this point of view of the name Λατεινος; an appropriateness very far greater than Irenaeus or Hippolytus imagined. But let me, before doing so, notice two objections that have been urged against it. One (the least important) is this; that it is a word indeterminate in itself, whether to be taken as an adjective or substantive.[63] But where the force of such an objection? The adjective Λατεινος taken as a local appellative, might just as fitly be a predicted title of Antichrist, as (Ναζωραιος) Nazarene, of Christ[64] — The second and principal objection is that the orthography of the Greek word is Λατινος, not Λτεινος; giving the number 661, not 666; and both Bellarmine, and yet more Bengel and I. E. Clarke after him, have asserted that such is the universal spelling of the word in ancient authors.[65]  That this however is not the case appears even from the quotation just given from Hippolytus, to whom they make no reference: for he writes both Λατινος and Λατεινος with an ει, like Irenaeus; and does not seem, any more than the earlier Father, even to imagine an objection on this score. Now the competency and learning of both these Fathers is undoubted;[66] and, as regards Irenaeus, his attention appears to have been directed, and his discrimination exercised, as will presently be seen, on this very point of the use of the diphthong. I may add further that Andreas, another learned Greek Father who lived some three centuries later, retained the word Λατεινος, as one of the admissible solutions. [67] And, turning from later to more ancient authors, it was so written, as Dr. More observes, by the old Roman Poet Ennius,[68] a man among the most learned of his age:[69] also, as Prof. Stuart adds, by the Poet Plautus;[70] and, as Eichhorn, Heinrichs, and more recently Mr. Rabett have observed, upon an ancient bust of Terence, “the Latein Siren.”[71]

The truth is, it was one out of two methods of writing the long Greek or Latin ί, in not uncommon use; in regard of the propriety of which authors differed, and fashions changed: just as among ourselves on the question of spelling Wycliffe, or Shakespeare, with an e final, or without. Of this we have abundant evidence in inscriptions on medals and antiques, still extant, of the age referred to.[72] More especially appellatives homogeneous with the word in question, such as Antoninus, Miustinus, &c. &c, are there found (not “very rarely” as Mr. Clarke would have it,[73] but) very commonly thus written, Αντωνειος Φαυσεινος &c.[74] Hence critics and antiquarians of different creeds, and without any bias on prophetic theories, unite in asserting its legitimacy. The Benedictine Montfaucon, having occasion to speak of Mithras on the Gnostic gems as numerically equivalent to 365, states the required orthography to be Μειθρας, instead of the more usual Μιθρας; observes that this use of the diphthong was most common; and (what is more) cites Jerome speaking of this spelling of the word, numerally, as if in no way strange or incorrect.[75] The Protestant Scaliger confines the propriety of the use of the diphthong to cases (like the one in question) where it is in the penultima with νος following it.[76] And Irenaeus himself seems to have anticipated him in this discriminating judgment. For, in suggesting Τειταν, he notes the spelling with the ει, as if there peculiar;[77] but, in regard of Αατεινος, seems to take for granted the orthography of the spelling.

In truth, on looking at the words given by ancient writers as words of mystic numerals, it strikes me that this, the more antique method of writing, was almost made a point of in framing the verbal mystery, or enigma.[78] For, besides that Mithras, as just before observed, was by them written Μειθρας, although Μιθρας was the usual orthography,  and Titan Τειταν by Irenaeus, as one probable solution of the Apocalyptic enigma, I find Σειγη to have been the manner in which the Gnostics spelt the name of their Aeon, when used in numeral enigma, not Σιγη [79] and Χρειστος not Χριστος [80] also that έπταχεισχειλιους and Χρειστιανους was the orthography adopted by Jerome, to make out the equi-numeralism of these words with each other, and with the number 1946.[81] These, with Αατεινος are all the examples I have met with of the long I, in words of this class handed down to us from the first four centuries. — So that the objection from the spelling falls to the ground, if I mistake not, altogether. And the word Αατεινος, originally recommended by the high double authority of Irenaeus and Hippolytus, and recommended yet more by its own intrinsic appropriateness, — its number (in the word’s usual mystic orthography) 666, its name that of a man, and name too of the then holders of that fourth of the four great mundane empires, out of which Antichrist was to rise, — stands forth for our acceptance disencumbered on this point, and free. [82]

And indeed in this last-mentioned point of view, viz. As a popular and local appellative, it had, when applied to the last or anti-Christian head and form of the Roman Beast, an appropriateness unfolded in subsequent history that the Fathers little anticipated: an appropriateness such that I doubt not, had Irenaeus known it, he would have regarded the name as not merely one out of two almost equally probable solutions, but the only and all but certain solution. — It is this. In the time of Irenaeus, though the then reigning emperor and nation might be called, as he observes, Latins[83] Yet the appellative so applied was unusual; the nation being Romans, the language only called Latin[84] But so it was that, a few centuries after, when the Western Empire had broken up into ten barbaric kingdoms, with Rome as their common religious center and capital, preparatory, according to prophecy, to the development of Antichrist, so it was, I say, that just at that critical conjuncture the Eastern, separating themselves from the nations of the West, instead of the national appellation of Greeks which more properly belonged to them, somewhat remarkably appropriated to themselves the distinctive appellative of Romans:[85] and affixed to those Western kingdoms, one and all, connected with Rome (and indeed precisely on account of their connection with Rome),[86] the very appellative of Latins here predicted in enigma. Nor did the latter fail to accept, and adopt, the title,[87] so that it became thenceforward the peculiar distinctive title of the Roman Empire in its last form; including both Body and Head. It was the Latin world, the Latin kingdoms, the Latin Church, the Latin Patriarch, the Latin Clergy, the Latin Councils.[88] Indeed the Romanists of the West did on their part whatever might yet more add to the appropriateness of the Apocalyptic appellation. To use Dr. More’s words, “They Latinize in everything. Mass, prayers, hymns, litanies, canons, decretals, bulls, are conceived in Latin. The Papal Councils speak in Latin… The Scripture[89] is read in no other language under Popery than Latin… In short, all things are Latin.”[90] I subjoin in a note a few other of the more remarkable solutions of the Apocalyptic numeral enigma, bearing on the Papacy;[91] not as intending in the slightest measure to interfere with that which I have urged as the one and only true solution, but for curiosity and information. And I would call attention very specially to Mr. Clarke’s of ´Η Λατινη Βασιλεια: which is indeed so remarkable that, were it but the name of a man, I should have thought the Divine Spirit might have had it also in view; as an alternative solution involving the word Latin in its more usual, though not the mystical, orthography. But that which alone completely answers to every requirement of the sacred enigma, and which I therefore fully and unhesitatingly believe to be the one intended by the Spirit, is Irenaeus’ solution, ΛΑΤΕΙΝΟΣ. And the total failure of every solution of other tendency, I mean of every one of which the object has been to turn away the application from the Popedom to some quite different enemy, or supposed enemy of Christ’s Church, whether Pagan, Protestant, or[92] Islam, has only served to make it the more remarkable, and the more convincing.[93]

III. Implimentation and Enforcment of the Mark of the Beast in its final form.

And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. (Rev 13:16-17)

We have seen in the pre-Reformation and Reformation history the enforcement of prohibitions, confiscations, and forfeiture of life, liberty, and property against hundreds of millions of those whom that Great Apostate Church deemed to be heritics. And we notice that this same beast with the mark, number and name is given new life, perhaps somewhat clandestinely when the wounded head is healed and regains control of, or rides the Beast. And how that when her past judgment and wounding came that such judgement fell upon those which had the mark of the beast, as well as the seat of the beast. We understand by verse 18, “it is the number of a man; and his number is…,” that the beast derives its number from the man who represents or heads it: The man of sin, Daniels little horn, the Anti-christ.

But here, in conjunction with the Earth Beast and the Image, a peculiarity in a universal requirement for the Mark of the Beast in order to buy or sell would seem to bring about a world wide condition where the Antichrist will dominate or supplant all of the monetary systems of the entire world so that he could exclude those who will not capitulate and choose to live in obedience to the true Gospel of the Christ and his kingdom from his universal system of buying and selling. Here I subjoin a contemporary treatise on the premise:

“The Mark Of The Beast

The January 1988 issue of The Economist magazine had emblazoned on its cover:  “Get ready for a world currency”


The title of the article: Get Ready for the Phoenix,  begins: “THIRTY years from now, Americans, Japanese, Europeans, and people in many other rich countries, and some relatively poor ones will probably be paying for their shopping with the same currency.  Prices will be quoted not in dollars, yen or D-marks but in, let’s say, the phoenix.  The phoenix will be favored by companies and shoppers because it will be more convenient than today’s national currencies, which by then will seem a quaint cause of much disruption to economic life in the last twentieth century.  At the beginning of 1988 this appears an outlandish prediction.”

The authors “quaint cause of much disruption” which began about 2008 remains a growing and harsh reality that is systematically destroying national economies around the globe.  The end game spelled out clearly thirty years in advance, the article continues: “This points to a muddled sequence of emergency followed by a patch-up followed by emergency, stretching out far beyond 2018 – except for two things.  As time passes, the damage caused by currency instability is gradually going to mount; and the very trends that will make it mount are making the utopia of monetary union feasible.”  The Economist article concludes, “Pencil in the phoenix for around 2018, and welcome it when it comes.”

“The Cashless Society is Almost Here – And With Some Very Sinister Implications”

A November 2012 Patrick Henningsen article so titled, in the midst of our growing financial crisis begins:  “Among the long list of items bundled by consensus reality merchants under the banner of ‘conspiracy theory’, is a world without cash – where technocrats rule over the populace, and everything and anything is exchanged via plastic and RFID chips.”  He continues, “What few counted on, however, was how the final push would take place, and why. Some will be surprised by these new emerging mechanisms, and the political and sinister implications they will ultimately lead to.”  And the author posits, “Every revolution needs a good crisis in order to germinate its seed. The cashless revolution is no different. It should be abundantly clear by now that the global financial meltdown has been engineered at every juncture of its unfolding by the very private central banks who expand and contract the money supply.  A dollar or euro collapse will trigger a global economic crisis, which is a prime opportunity to introduce the next phase.”

Our author admits:  “It’s arguable that we (are) approaching the cusp of that US Dollar collapse, and perhaps a Euro implosion on the back end of it.  Risks of hyper inflation are very real here, but if you control the money supply (you) might already have a ready-made solution waiting in the wings, you will not be worrying about the rift, only waiting for the chaos to ensue so as to maximize your own booty from the crisis.”  He also reports, Economics professor Miles Kimball from the University of Michigan thinks he knows the answer, and I quote:  “In short, for a smooth transition, a reintroduced mark needs to be an electronic mark. I recently made the case for the electronic dollar in a previous Quartz column, “E-Money: How paper currency is holding the US recovery back.”

Patrick then does an adequate job of weaving Bitcoin, (EBT) Electronic Benefit Transfer, and social engineering as the darker side of the technological leap.  He concludes the article:  “The financial collapse which began in 2007-2008 was merely the opening gambit of the elite criminal class, a mere warm-up for things to come.  With the next collapse we may see a centrally controlled global digital currency gaining its final foothold. The cashless society is already here. The question now is – how far will society allow it to penetrate and completely control each and every aspect of their day to day lives?”

The Bible exposes Satan’s intent in the unfolding trans-generational conspiracy implemented primarily by his ignorant and unwitting subordinates upon all the inhabitants of the earth.  By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence… (Eze 28:16)  Chapter 13 of the Book of Revelation tells us that Satan will set up a monetary system thru the final governments of men under his control which will require “…all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.” (Rev 13:16-17)

Bible defined:

And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed. And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.  (Rev 13:15-18)

What we learn to identify the Mark Of The Beast (MOTB) is that the Second Beast whom we have identified as America, creates an Image, the United Nations, to rule the world as at one time did the Roman Empire, the First Beast.  Now the military arm of the United Nations is headquartered in the District of Columbia, one of the Cities of the Empire.  In verse 12 it is stated of the U.S. Government, “he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him.”  (see our chapter on America)  America has filled this role as the worlds primary policeman for the last half century through the UN.  That America is alluded to as the primary enforcer of the MOTB and the worship of the Image (obedience to the UN power) should not be surprising, rather it is a confirmation of our interpretation.

We also learn that the primary application and lure of the MOTB system is monetary so that no one will be able to buy or sell in the Beast System without it.  Therefore we need a biblical understanding of money:

A false balance is abomination to the LORD: but a just weight is his delight. (Pro 11:1)

A just weight and balance are the LORD’S: (Pro 16:11)

And if thy brother be waxen poor… Thou shalt not give him thy money upon usury, nor lend him thy victuals for increase. (Lev 25:35-37)

“A just weight and balance are the LORD’S,” this quote defines a monetary system of honest substance, like gold and silver or any other commodity by weight.

The MOTB monetary system is Satan’s money and antithetical to Biblical financial Principles.  “A false balance is abomination to the LORD,” it is also the foundation of Satan’s monetary system – money without commodity or substance.  Now what if you had a monetary system where all this money was created by usury out of thin air?  When we weigh our present day monetary systems in the light of God’s word it becomes easy to determine that the fiat usury money of today is not God’s money, but Satan’s.  It is therefore only logical that the final MOTB system will incorporate these evils at an unprecedented level.  The introduction of a totally digital currency will be the pinnacle of these Satanic principles in practice.

Upon the introduction of the final MOTB financial system I believe we will see a creeping enforcement that will quickly outlaw every form of financial exchange outside the Digital Mark System.  Because I have practiced living without the New World Social Order Numbering System for twenty plus years now, I have experienced this creeping exclusion from financial system privileges such as banking and borrowing, credit or debit cards, and commercial as well as drivers licensing to name a few.  This process will be exacerbated upon the introduction of the final Digital Mark System, even to the exclusion of paying property taxes.  As practiced during the inquisitions of history, the property of heretics (those who will then not comply with the New World Social-Economic Order) will again be confiscated, but by the State for non-payment of taxes, same effect.

And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name. Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus. And I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and their works do follow them.  (Rev 14:9-13)

Most people of the world will transition into the MOTB system without a whimper as they are already idolaters and worshipers of Satan at least in practice if not overtly and they will quickly turn on those who will not comply.  Though they may escape the wrath of the ‘Powers That Be’ they will not escape the wrath of God Who’s wrath will have eternal consequences.  Those righteous who overcome, or get victory over the beast, image and mark will likely do so at the peril of their mortal lives, which lives they accept as perishing anyway, rather having their eyes set upon the prize of eternal life through Jesus the Messiah and redeemer of mankind.

And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.  (Rev 20:4)

The primary attribute of those who overcome the MOTB is that “they that keep the commandments of God…”  The sad fact that the Corporate (in bed with the State) church has taught that the commandments of God were nailed to the cross will leave many of these Corporation churched and nominal Christians totally unprepared to recognize or effectively stand against the Mark Of The Beast.  They have been told that God’s Law was only for the Jews back then and we do not have to carry that heavy burden.  The corporate hirelings lead people up to the Kingdom but do not suffer them to enter because they do not go in themselves, they deny the power of the kingdom, the power of any kingdom is found in its law.

Mat 23:13  But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in.”[94]

The same author has some ideas as to what differentiates this demonic money system from that established by or Creator as well as its implementation with which we will end this section:

“666 and The Mark of the Beast, What is it?

And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads:  (17)  And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.  Revelation 13:16-17

The Mark Of The Beast and the Name of the Beast and the Number of His Name (666) are not all the same thing as most people believe.  The number of HIS name (666) is for us to Identify the Head of the Beast that received the wound by the sword and did live because it is the number of a man, or succinctly the position that is filled by a man.  I believe that we have successfully identified both of the Revelation 13 Beasts and this wounded Head in our prior chapters.  The Mark Of The Beast is to identify the People that Belong to the Beast in this Final Era.  The Shocking Truth is that the Bible does not require that this Final Era be confined to a mere seven or three and a half year period of time.  It is only shocking because most people, especially Christians have been taken in by the Great Prophecy Delusion and its Seven Year Tribulation Deception.

In 2009 India began its UID program to biometrically ID its 1.2 billion citizens (one sixth of the world population).  They hope to have 600 million enrolled by the end of 2014 and to be able to enroll another 1 million per day about the same time.  This means, if all goes well that it will take at least two additional years to number the remaining 600 million citizens.  A Wired article proclaims,

“The technological problems may pale compared to the potential civil liberties issues. Anti-Aadhaar protesters showed up at Nilekani’s January speech at the National Institute of Advanced Studies. Several anti-Aadhaar websites have sprung up. And members of parliament and prominent intellectuals have criticized the whole idea. (A Christian sect even denounced it as a cover for introducing the number of the Beast.).  Technically, Aadhaar is voluntary. No one is obligated to get scanned into the system. But that’s like saying no American is obligated to get a Social Security number. In practice, once the Aadhaar system really takes hold, it will be extremely difficult for anyone to function without being part of it.

According to China Daily, over 1.1 billion people have already received their new (biometric) ID cards. (as of January 2013)

Many believe the Mark Of The Beast will be a bio-chip implant.  However the bio-chip has proven much too insecure and prone to easy theft by cloning to gain acceptance.  And the bio-chip can never BE the Mark Of The Beast, it can only tell you what ones identifying number or MARK is.  The mode is not the Mark, it is only the means by which your account number is identified.  There is a better and more secure technology, and it is already in use.  As a matter of fact all of these other modes, (chips, cards and other cyber-connected devices) are dependent upon ancient technology for final verification.

Lets look at exactly what the Scripture says about this Mark of the Beast:

– Rev 13:16 reveals that the second Beast …causeth all to receive it,

– Ch 19 v.20 says they that receive it are deceived [possibly meaning they are manipulated, or that they do not know the full implications of what they are doing.  Many will choose to worship the Image for a personal cause, benefits, career, safety and out of fear.

– Ch 14 v.12 explains that those who do not receive it “keep the commandments of God” and at sometime may forfeit their lives by refusing, recanting or not receiving the Mark of the Beast.

– Ch 15 v.2 talks about … them that had gotten the victory over the beast, and over his image, and over his mark, and over the number of his name…  meaning that many who were deceived may repent and recant the use and participation in the Beast Identification System.

This is contrary to the popular interpretation which teaches that, all who take the mark will be damned by God to be cast into the Lake of Fire – NO EXCEPTIONS.  I believe the Enemy has implemented this device to breed DENIAL – But I serve a God who is BIG on forgiveness, His word also says that “ALL LIARS WILL HAVE THEIR PART IN THE LAKE OF FIRE.”  But we also understand, though we have all lied at some time, God’s forgiveness makes an exception for all who will repent.  True repentance of the Mark of the Beast will be no different though in time it may cost you everything, including your life.  And I must warn anyone who receives the MOTB intentionally, believing they will be able to repent later, it is unlikely they will ever come to that repentance.

Now I told you that there is a better and more secure technology already in use than the bio-chip and It seems that both India and China agree.  That ancient technology created by God is the individuals unique biology and the frontal lobe of the brain, the memory, what the Bible refers to as your forehead.  And if you are like most people you have already received some form of Government [BEAST] identification number or [MARK].  And You can recite it at this very moment!  With all of this biometric data collection going on one thing remains in common among the nations implementing biometric ID systems:  every individual is issued a unique identifying account number.  If the target date for the MOTB is in fact 2018, the question remains, will the worlds population be numbered in time.  Almost everyone I know in the good ole USA is already numbered.  The biometric data is simply for verification of any individuals account number.  The MOTB will always require some form of biometric verification, the most secure of which is your memory.  Believing that it must be a bio-chip implant is a red herring as is the “Sunday worship is the Mark of the Beast” teaching along with the rapture seven year tribulation deception.  All of these make you feel safe now and ignore the fact that you already have a mark which will completely qualify when the time comes to transition to the final MOTB phase.  We only need to move beyond the deceptions which maintain our denial.

A false balance [is] abomination to the LORD:(Pro 11:1)  A just weight and balance [are] the LORD’S  Pro 16:11:  These scriptures describe two different types of money.  Which one do you think will accompany the Mark of the Beast system?  The false balance combined with usury, both which God hates, precisely describes the new monetary system that has now overtaken the entire world.  Does one not need a certain identification number to participate in this new monetary creation process through usury credit?  In other words, don’t you need a certain government issued identification number in order to qualify for a loan from your local bank?  Does one not mortgage their life and labor for this privilege?  And who has the power to create this money out of thin air?  Just who do you become indebted to?  The Bible tells exactly who, “the dragon gave him his power…” it also tells us that the “borrower is a slave to the lender.”

The Beast “causes all” to receive the mark, but there are those who will recant or not receive the Mark or withdraw even to the point of death.  To “buy or sell” means that this will be a system of monetary identification, but because there are those who will not receive the MOTB we may conclude that there will also be an “underground” economy.  So there are and will continue to be two different monetary systems in these final years.  The “underground” one will be based on trade in substance, a just weight and balance.  In a LAWFUL MONETARY SYSTEM no one needs an identification to participate, you simply need valuable consideration or substance to carry out your trade.  But a USURY MONETARY SYSTEM requires some sort of identification to participate in creating money out of debt because slaves (the borrower is a slave to the lender) must be tracked and the whereabouts of their assets accounted for.  Slaves must report to their masters!

You are not going to like this part – I know I don’t!  In America do you fill out a 1040 inquisition form?  MOST have an ID (a mark) that identifies them by number as belonging to the government (a beast).  It is a number which allows them to buy, sell and trade-work, open bank accounts, and get credit in the Beast Monetary system.  Did you sign up for one of these numbers?  Or did someone volunteer you?  Wake up, repent, “Come out of her my people and I will receive you.”  This is not a joke.  Many are walking away from the SSN in the USA, the SIN in Canada, the NENo. in Europe, etc.  The Beast has its numbering Mark System for every county now, walking away will be the only option for the Elect of God.  WAKE UP, REPENT, THE KINGDOM IS AT HAND.

And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues. (Rev 18:4)

The love of Mammon is the root of all evil.  Mammon is unjust gain and a false balance-which the Lord hates, all money created by the FED / IMF has a diminishing value for this very purpose and the purpose of enslaving the masses through usury.  It is no wonder that the New World Social-Economic Order is now enlisting the masses by operation of planned financial crisis into a socialist benefit system now using exclusively Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) to manipulate their victims into the precarious position of irrevocable dependence.  When the final transformation to the MOTB system occurs these people will be easily integrated and enslaved to the New World Social-Economic Order, the real Matrix of the Mother of Harlots.

The Elect of God, those who obey His commandments know that the acceptance of socialist benefits is an unjust gain and it bothers their conscience.  It is the love of mammon to accept that unjust gain rather than obey the commandment and rely solely upon the provision of God, even at the danger of want, the just shall walk by faith.  Some will be called to repentance and will not be able to continue to participate, especially upon the final transition into the MOTB monetary system.  Many will be required to even walk away from their homes, hard earned wealth, investments and other pseudo investments such as Social Security when that time comes.  The choice to maintain riches and security for now but forfeit the gospel prize is no choice at all for the elect.”[95]

[1]Editors Note, 2018 Quin. Ed. E. B Elliot finished his great work about the year 1860. The nature of the Historicist method of interpretation is such that the line of fulfilled prophecy is continually moving with the passage of time. The interpretation of which necessarily requires a certain amont of speculation which must be verified before accepted as true. As well intentioned as many are, the passage of time will overthrow the best of expositors on some points of which time would reveal to be mere speculation. Though the bulk of Mr. Elliots work still stands the test of time, time has unveiled a more likely or true interpretation on the following. E.B.’s determination that this beast was the Clergy division of the Roman Church however does not stand the test of time subsequent. His original text on the particular topic may be found in his 1865 publication archived at archive.org etc.

[2]Dan. 8:8

[3]Rev. 13:2

[4]Rev. 17:8

[5]At the time of this edition, 2018. Constitution signed 1787.

[6]Rev. 11:13

[7]When The Third Temple is Built, Nicklas Arthur, 2018.

[8]Ibid.

[9]The Rapture Will Be Canceled, Nicklas Arthur, 2014.

[10]politico.com/magazine/story/2015/06/us-military-bases-around-the-world-119321

[11]Dan. 3:1.

[12]Rev.13:16.

[13]Rev. 17:8.

[14]Luke 4:5-6.

[15]Wikipedia.

[16]Ibid.

[17]Ibid.

[18]Ibid.

[19]This continued breaking up (decolonization) answers to the Dan. 7:19 attribute of the Sea Beast, “which devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet;” very fitting with the “iron mingled with clay” in the Daniel chapter 2 Mystery Babylon Image of the feet and ten toes description, “they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay” preceding the return of Christ to set up His Kingdom.

[20]Ibid.

[21]un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E

[22]theeconomiccollapseblog.com/archives/tag/the-growing-power-of-the-united-nations

[23]Ibid

[24]In verse 17 the or is wanting in A and C. In verse 18 C and some later MSS. read χις ´ See P- 246 Note 1 infra.

[25]Particularly by Danbuz ad loc. and Clarice, in his elaborate work on the Dragon and Beast. —  Mr. Rabett has also published a work on the Name and Number of the Beast, which I have only seen, while revising this Work for my 4th Edition. It strongly advocates the same name and number that I do.

[26]Και τουτους ώς οικετας επωλουν στιζοντες ίππον εις το μετωπον. Plutarch, Vita Niciae.  —  A horse running loose is frequent on Syracusan medals. See Eckhel, or other Numismatists, on Sicilian coins.

[27]So Valerius Maximus speaks of the custom for slaves, ” literarum notis inuri; ” and Plautus calls the slave “literatus.” Amhrose (De Obit. Valentin. 58) says ” Charactere domini inscribuntur servuli:” and Petronius notes the forehead as the place of stigma; ” Servitia ecce in front ibus cernitis.” See Daubuz, pp. 600, 603.

[28]Ӕlian says; Στιφματα εστι των στρατευομενων ταις χερσιν. Ӕtius; “Stigmata vocant qua? in facie, vel in alia parte corporis, inscribuntur; qualia sunt militum in manibus.” Vegetius; “Victuris in cute punctis milites scripti..jurare solent.” So that it was a kind of tattooing. Ambrose (ibid.); ” Nomine imperatoris signantur milites.” — Perhaps, says the Benedictine Editor of Ambrose, St. Paul alludes to this when he says, (Gal. vi. 17,) “I bear in my body the marks, orty/iara, of the Lord Jesus.”

[29]Χαρασσεσθαι και δια πυρος εις το σωμα παρασημψ Διονυσου κισσοφυλλψ. So the Author of the 3rd Book of Maccabees.

[30]E. g. the number 3 was sacred to Minerva, 4 to Apollo, &c. See Clarke, p. 10.

[31]The Marcosian heretics regarded 24 as a sacred number; because this was alike the number of letters in two quaternions of their Ӕons, or demi gods: the first quaternion being, Αρρητος Σειγη Πατηρ Αληθεια; the second, Δογος Ζωη Ανθρωπος Εκκλησια. lb. 13.

[32]Apoc. xv. 2.

[33]So Mr. Clark, 33. And, besides, enigmas, of which the nature is this, — the number being given to find the name, — could only on this principle of numbering be distinct and discoverable: words of the same number of letters being innumerable 3.

[34]The illustrations given by Daubuz and Clarke are borrowed in a considerable measure from Martian Capella, a Latin Poet of the date, some say, of the 5th century; some (as Clarke, p. 15) B .C. 50. A somewhat large difference!

[35]Daubuz, p. 605. Thus; (0 = 9 + w = 800 + v = 400 + = 9) = 1218.

[36](H = 8 + a= l + p = 100 + x = 600 + n = 8) = 717. So the line of Orpheus on Jove; Αρχη παντων παντων τε τελευτη.

[37](H = 8 + v=400 + e = 200)=608. — Ηυς  good, ύης shower-giving. This example is taken from Capella by Daubuz and Clarke: and the enigma is thus expressed in verse; Octo et sexcentis numeris, cui littera trina Conformat sacrum (mystis) nomen, cognomen, et omen. Mystis is the reading of Daubuz, in place of the sacrum of Clarke.

[38]See Walsh’s Book on Early Christian Coins, p. 37. He says; “They are not only found in the East, where travelers procure them without much difficulty; but are continually dug up on the banks of the Rhine and Garonne, and in different parts of Spain, Italy, and other western countries.” — He adds from Irenaeus and Jerome that they were called amulets (“quod malum amolitur”), as being charms to the wearer.

[39](A = l+β = 2 + ρ = 100 + a = l + σ = 200 + a = l + ξ = 60) = 365.— Basilides said that Abraxas was the highest God ; and that 365 heavens were made in honour of him; this being the number of his name. So Tertullian, De Praeser. 46.

[40](M = 40 + t = 5 + i = 10 + = 9 + p = 100 + a = l + £ = 200) = 365. See Walsh, 39-41.

[41](passing over the case of the Cabbalistic Jews, of whose Gematria or ισαψηφια however, I subjoin an example or two here) I give three examples. The first and third, among others, are extracted by Mr. Clarke, pp. 28, 29, from Aben Ezra and Kimchi; the second is given by Dr. M’Caul in his Note on Kimchi ad loc. — In Hebrew, the reader will understand, as in Greek, the letters of the Alphabet, in order, express the units up to 10, — then the tens from 10 to 100, — then the hundreds from 100 to 1000, &c. 1. In Zechariah iii. 8, the Branch, r^s, was explained to signify the Messiah; because in Lamentations i. 16 the Messiah was called , the Comforter; and the number of the former word, ( =90 + 40 + 8) as of the latter, (= 40 + 50 + 8 + 40) was 138. — 2. On the same principle the word serpent, is made by the Jews one of the names of Messiah, because its numerical value is equal to that of Item, Messiah. “And perhaps,” says Dr. M’Caul, “our Lord may have alluded to this, when he said, As Moses lifted up the serpent” &c — 3. In answer to the question, What is the lily *[Esther i. 2, 5: where our translation is, as of a proper name, Shusan.] in the Book of Esther? the Cabbalists replied, Esther: because both words contain the same number 661.

[42](I am surprised that they did not note the ισαψηφια. with this sacred abbreviation for Jesus, of the word ήλιος , the Sun: (n = 8 + λ = 30 + i = 10 + o = 70 + <; = 200) = 318.

[43]Gen. xiv. 14.

[44]Judges vii. 6.

[45]Carm. adv. Marc. Lib. iii. Cap. 4: Hoc etenim signo prsedonum stravit acervos, Congressus populo Christi, sine milite multo, Tercenteno equite, (numerus Tau, litera Graeca,) Armatis facibusque, et cornibus ore canente.

[46]The number is (A=l + δ= 4 + α = l + μ = 40) = 46. And so, says an African writer confounded with Cyprian,‡[In the Oxford and Amsterdam Editions of Cyprian (16S2 and 1691) the Treatise referred to, De Montibus Sina et Sion, is placed among Pseudo-Cyprianic.] Christ died at the 6th hour of the day, and ascended on the 40th day from his resurrection, in the 6th millennary of the world, (i. e. according to the Septuagint Chronology). The conceit that these four letters were chosen to form Adam’s name, as being the initials of ανατολη δυσις αρκτος μεσημβρια the four quarters of the world, and indicating that earth was taken from all to form his body, (a conceit found also in the Sibylline Poems,) deserves remark, as an indication of the not infrequent undue imaginativeness of the early Fathers. Clark, 66.

[47]Iren. i. 12, ii. 40. (1 = 10 + jj = 8 + <t= 200 + o = 70 + u = 400 + e = 200)=888. See Clark, 23. It was of course natural that this word should be adopted as a charm by those who looked to charms. The same of the word Χριστος. And thus Kircher, in his Magia Hieroglyphica, well explains the intent and force of the strange-looking legend ΧΝΟΨΜΙΣΡΙ which he found on a Gnostic gem with the figure of a serpent, from its ισοψηφια with Χριστος; either word making up numerically the same sum of 1480. Thus: (X = 600 + v= 50 + o=70 + u= 400 + μ= 40 + i = 10 + s= 200 + p = 100 + i= 10) = 1480. Again (X = 600 + p + 100 + i = 10 + r= 200 + r = 300 + o = 70 + e= 200) = 1480. Walsh, 43.

[48]On the Sibylline verses see Mosh. ii. 2. 3. 15. There is an interest attaches to them from the circumstance of their having apparently (forged though they were) had some influence in the conversion of Constantine. See his quotations from them in the Letter given by Eusebius.

[49]E. g. In Book v. the succession of Roman emperors, from Tiberius to Adrian, is enigmatically noted by mention of the numeral value of the first letter in each of their names in Greek respectively.

[50]The first of my two examples is on the word Ιησους (Jesus’), taken from the 1st Book of the Sibylline Oracles, near the end. Δη τοτε και μεγαλοιο θεο παις ανθρωποισιν Ηξει σαρκοφορος θνητοις ομοιουμενος εν ψη Τεσσερα φωνηεντα φερει τα δ´ αφωνα δύ αυτψ Δισσων  αγγελλων *[So my copy of the Sibylline Oracles, Paris, 1599. Clarke, p. 22, has Δισσων ασραγαλων.. Prof. M. Stuart (ibid.) gives the various reading, τα δ´ αφωνα δύ αυτψ Δισσοντ´ αγγελλων.] αριθμονδ´ όλον εξονομηνω Οκτω γαρ μοναδας τοσσας δεκαδας επι τουτοις Ηδ έκατονταδας οκτω απιστοτεροις ανθρωποις Ουνομα δηλωωσει.  i. e. ” He will come upon earth, clothed with flesh like mortal men. His name contains four vowels and two consonants: two of the former being sounded together. And I will declare the entire number. For the name will exhibit to incredulous men eight units, eight tens, and eight hundreds.” See above Note 1. My second example, taken from Book I, verse 146, &c, is on some divine title containing the number 1697, under which God addresses himself to Noah. Ενναεα γραμματ´ εχω τετρασυλλαβος ειμι νοελ με Αί τρεις αί πρωται δυο γραμματ εχουσιν εκαστη ´Η λοιπη δε τα λοιπα και εισιν αφωνα τα πεντε Του παντος δ´αριθμου έκατονταδες εισι δις οκτω Και τρεις τρισδεκαδες συνγ έπτα γνους δε τις ειμι Ουκ αμυητος εση θειης παρ´ εμοιγε σοφιης. i. e. ” I am of nine letters and four syllables. Consider me! The three first syllables have each two letters, the fourth the rest; of which letters five are consonants. Of the number the amount is 16 hundreds, 3 thirties, and seven. And if thou under-stand who I am, thou shalt not be uninitiated in ‘my divine wisdom.” — Mr. Clarke (p 21) says he is unable to find a wholly correct solution; but that θεος σωτηρ (Savior God) would answer in every point but the aggregate number: having 9 letters, 4 syllables, (the 3 first of two letters, the 4th of three,) and five consonants. But the whole number is 5 deficient; being 1692, not 1697. — Professor Stuart (i. 103) gives the word ανεκφωνος as the solution; of which the number is 1696, or one wanting of the number required. — But this seems to me quite inferior to the other. And indeed I suspect that Mr. Clarke’s solution is perfectly correct; the αυν γ´ έπτα in the Sibylline verse being a mistake of copyists for δυο δ´ ειτα, or some such reading, which will make the number 1692: especially as both θεος and σωτηρ occur twice over, immediately afterwards, in Noah’s consequent address to the people about God. 1.Ου λησελ θεον όσσ´ επραξατε παντα γαρ οιδεν Αθανατος Σωτηρ πανεπισκοπος ός μ´εκελευσεν Αγγελλωειν ύμιν. 2.Εσαι δ´ ατρεκεως ότ´ ες άνθρωπος προιαψει Σωτηρ αθανατος αν μη θεον ιλασκησθε.: Also in the Sibyl’s famous acrostic:Ιησος Χρειστος θεο Ψιος Σωτηρ.

[51]See Note 5 p. 242 supra. Let me here observe, ere I pass from the subject, that this method of enigmatic numeration prevailed to later times among Christian ecclesiastical writers, and indeed among Saracens and Turks also. — For an example of the former I may refer to Ambrose Ansbert’s comment on Apoc. xxii., B. P. M. xiii. 653; where he notes the ισοψηφια of Christ’s title of the a and w (the numerical value of which two letters is 1 + 800 = 801) with θεος Αβρααμ ή αειδιος αληθεια the value of this last being, 9 + 5 + 70 + 200+1 + 2+100 + 1 + 1 + 40 + 8+1 + 5+10 + 4+10+70 + 200+1+30 + 8 + 9 + 5 + 10+1=801. — As to the latter, we find the date of the death of the famous Khair-Ed-deen Pasha, or Barbarossa, is expressed, says Hadji Khalfa, in the Arabic sentence, Mat Sis al Bahr (” The Captain of the sea is dead”): the numeral value of the letters in which=(40+ 1 +400 + 200+ 10 + 60 + 1 + 30 +2+ 1 + 8 + 200 = ) 953. For Barbarossa died in the year of the Hejira 953. Blackwood’s Magazine for Aug. 1842.

[52]It seems there was a reading in some copies extant even then of  χις´, instead of χες’, 616 instead of 666; — a reading still perpetuated in the Codex Ephrem, and by the Expositor Tichonius. Against it Irenaeus thus inveighs:Ουκ οιδα πως εσφαλησαν τινες επακολουθησαντες ιδιοτισμψ και τον μεσον νθετησαν αριθμον του ονοματος ν´ψηφισμα ύφελοντες και έξδεκαδων μιαν δεκαδα βουλομενοι ειναι. Lib. v. c. 30. On t’, as a Greek numeral formed from the digamma, see Eckhel iv. 383. I shall presently have to revert to this point.

[53]Or pseudo-Hippolytus. ´Η δε σφραγις αυτου επι του μετωπου και επι της δεξιας χειρος εστι ψηφος χξς. De Consumm. Mundi.

[54]It is the reading, moreover, of all the most ancient manuscripts except the Codex Ephrem; especially of the famous Codex Alexandrinus in the British Museum; a manuscript of the supposed date, says Mr. Tregelles, of the 5th century; — in which manuscript it is written at full length, έξακοσιοι εξηκοντα έξ.

[55]Apoc. i. 8. So Tichonius in loc.

[56]He says;Και του λογου διδασκοντος ήμας ότι ό αριθμος του ονοματος του θηριου κατα την των ´Ελληνων ψηφον δια των εν αυτψ γραμματων εμφαινεται. Lib. v. c. 30, apud Euseb. H. E. v. 8.

[57]There is no exception, I believe, whatever among the Fathers of the first six centuries.

[58]So Clarke, p. 59. — The unfitness of the Latin appears in this, that there is but a very small proportion of its letters numeral, viz. M = 1000, D = 500, C = 100, L = 50, X=10, V = 5, 1 = 1. For it is by a combination of V and X with I, single, or repeated, that the other numbers are made up; there being a difference in the combined value according as the I is on one side or the other of the X or the V; e. g. IV being equal to 4, VI to 6: a combination this impossible in any distinct ισοψηφια, and, consequently, excluded. In Latin enigmas of this kind, the word ought to be one altogether made up of letters of numeral values, so as in the DIC LVX proposed by Albertus Magnus, as answering to the 666 of the Apocalypse; a solution otherwise, however, objectionable and absurd. This principle is recognized in the ancient example on the word DVX, given by Mr. Clarke: Qui de quingentis de quinque deeemqae sit unus, Ille meis precibus dignum poterit dare munus. For DVX in numeral value is (D = 500 + V=5 + X=10), or 515.

[59]The appellative, as “the name of a man,” did not after this become obsolete. It has continued even to comparatively modern times, e. g. I observe Latinus Vestanus among the subscriptions to the 5th Lateran Council, Hard. ix. 1708. And others of the name are recorded in Moreri’s Encyclopaedia.

[60]“Sed et LATEINOS nomen habet sexcentorum sexaginta sex numerum. Et valdfe verisimile est; quoniam novissimum regnum hoc habet vocabulum. Latini enim sunt qui nunc regnant.” Lib. v. cap. 30.

[61]“Etenim praedictuin numerum habet Ttirav in se; et literarum est sex, singulis syllabis ex ternis Uteris constantibus, et vetus, et semotum. Neque enim eorum regum qui secundum nos sunt aliquis vocatus est Titan; neque eorum qua? publice adorantur idolorum apud Graecos et barbaros habet vocabulum hoc. Et divinum putatur apud multos esse hoc nomen, ut etiam sol Titan vocetur ab his qui nunc tenent: et ostentationem quandam continet ultionis, et vindictam inferentis, quod ille simulat se male tractatos vindicare. Et alias autem et antiquum, et fide dignum, et regale, magis autem et tyrannicum nomen.” lb. — In noticing the circumstance of the word having six letters, he seems to intimate its analogy in that respect to the number 666.

[62]After mentioning that various names might be found containing the number 666, he simply notes in passing the names Τειταν and Ευανθας;and then thus proceeds to Δατεινος: —  Επειδη προεφθημεν λεγοντες ότι εθεραπὰευθη ή πληγη του θηριου του πρωτου και ποιησει λαλειν την εικονα τουτεστιν ισχυσαι φανερον δ´εστι πασιν ότι οί κρατουντες ετι νυν εισι Δατεινοι εις ένος ουν ανθρωπου ονομα μεταγομενον γινεται Δατεινος. De Antichristo, § 50.

[63]This combines Clarke’s second and third objections: — “2. the impossibility of determining whether it be a substantive or an adjective:  —  3. its indefinite form: for, supposing it to be a substantive, we are not informed from it what Lateinos is intended; and, admitting it to be an adjective, we cannot determine with what substantive it is designed to be connected.” p. 44.

[64]Matt. ii. 23; Ναζωραιος κληθσεται. It was an appellation of Christ that formed part of the superscription at his crucifixion;Ιησους ό Ναζωραιος Jesus the Nazarene. John xix. 19.

[65]See Clarke, p. 38, &c.

[66]It is altogether superfluous to quote testimonies to the learning of one so well known and so reverenced as Irenceus. Of Hippolytus, who is less generally known, I may observe that Chrysostom speaks of him (Orat. 41) as among the luminaries of the Church; that Jerome (Ep. 28 ad Lucian.) calls him ” disertissimus,” and the Roman Martyrology (on Aug. 22) ” eruditione clarissimus.”

[67]ώς εν γυμνασιας λογψ πολλα ες ευρειν κατα τον μακαριον ´Ιππλυτον και έτερος ονοματα τον αριθμον τοτον περιεχοντα προσηγυρικα τε και κυπια μεν οίον Δαμπετις Τειταν…Δατεινος [δια διφθογγε] Βενεδικτος. It is observed indeed by Bengel; ” In uno Andrea? codice manuscripto Δατινος, a librario emendante contra Andreee institutum, est repositum: in altero ad Δατεινος additur, δια διφθογγου  aperta licentiae confessione.” (Clarke, 39.) But he would surely scai-ce mean to suggest that the correcting copyist was more competent than his author; whose learning is well known. See B. P. M. v. 589.*[I must observe that in the Latin translation of Andreas given in the B. P. M. v. 613, the word seems at first sight wholly omitted from Andreas’ comment. He is made to allude indeed to solutions given by Hippolytus; and he specifies λαμπετης βενεδικτος κακος οδηγος αληθης βλαβερος παλαι βασκανος αμνος αδικος. But no mention is made of Aareivog. A careful inspection of the passage suggests the mistranslation, or misprint. For “Proprium, exempli causa, Grsecis sit AcifnrtTrjg, Latine Benedictus, Persice Sarmnaeus,” we must read, Δαμπετις Δατεινος βεϝεδικτος Περσαιος Σαρμνεος For it is only by Greek computation that Benedict and the other two words have the numerical value of 666. — But what Benedict! Heinrichs (ii. 252) says Benedict IX; who was elected Pope A.D. 1033, some centuries after Andreas. And so in, or after, that age some may have applied it. But, if meant of a Pope by Andreas, (which is not likely,) it must have been Benedict I, A.D. 573 — 577 man of learning; and quite to be trusted, I conceive, as a faithful copyist of the bust in the Vatican. I regret not to have made inquiries about the bust while at Rome. Mr. P. also observes, p. 229, that in one edition at least of Strabo, the Aldine, p. 81 (Ed. 1514), the Greek word for Latium is written Δατειον.]

[68]“Quani primuni cascei popolei tenuere Lateinei.” So Ennius, cited from More’s Works, p. 595, by Mr. Cuninghame, p. 173. Mr. Rabett’s reference, p. 223, is to Ennii Annal. Lib. i. p. 3. (Ed. Lugd. Bat. 1595.)

[69]See Cicero’s or Quinctilian’s respectful notices of him.

[70]“We may refer to the custom of the more ancient Latin, as in Plautus, of writing I (the long Latin i) by ei; e. g. solitei, diveis, captivei, preimus, Lateina, &c.” M. Stuart on the Apocalypse, ii. 456: a work published subsequently to my first Edition.

[71]Eichhorn. ” Terentii effigies, in scholis olim suspensa, titulum habuisse dicitur hunc ‘ Seiren Lateina quam dedit victa Africa.’ ” So Eichhorn in Apoc. Xiii. 18, Vol. ii. p. 135: a passage repeated, as from Eichhorn, by Heinrichs in his 4th Excursus, Vol. ii. p. 246. The latter only objects that it was the ancient form of writing it, and disused in the time of St. John; an objection (see my next Page) that is in fact a recommendation. Mr. Rabett, p. 224, gives a copy of this Bust of Terence, from an engraving of it on the title-page of Farnaby London Edition of Terence A.D. 1651: an engraving said to be from a bust of Terence in the Vatican Library at Rome. Farnaby was a anticipatman of learning; and quite to be trusted, I conceive, as a faithful copyist of the bust in the Vatican. I regret not to have made inquiries about the bust while at Rome. Mr. P. also observes, p. 229, that in one edition at least of Strabo, the Aldine, p. 81 (Ed. 1514), the Greek word for Latium is written Δατειον.

[72]See Dobson’s Variorum Edition of the Oratores Attici, iv. 581; where the commentator on the Consecratio Saepti observes that the use of the diphthong εί for the long ί was most common among the Romans even in the Augustan age, and down to Trajan’s. ” Obiter moneam nihil apud Romanos in vetustis lapidibus frequentius esse. In inscriptionibus Augusteum sevura subolentibus frequentissime invenies a pro longo t positum. Nee sub Augusto tantum, sed sub prosime sequentium Imperatorum principatu, hanc diphthongum ei in usu fuisse indicat inscriptio apud Gruter. p. 99. 1; ” &c. The Commentator had previously observed: ” A Doriensibus pracipue t in diphthongum ei resolvi docent monumenta Peloponnesia a Paciaudio edita. Ibi Νεικηφορος Ελπινεικη Τειμαρχος πολειτης &c.” — It will be remembered that the Latin was of Doric or AEolic origin.

[73]Clarke, p. 44. — The extreme rarity, as he would have it, of the dipththong εί in analogous words, is the grand objection he makes to the use of it in Αατεινος.

[74]See Mionnet’s Greek imperial medals; where the words Βαλβεινος Μακρεινος Μαξιμεινος Αντωνεινος &c. &c, occur frequently; the other spelling being used elsewhere. So i. 500, 501, ii. 78, 148, 225, 236, 345, &c — See also Spanheim De Usu Num. 80, &c, and Eckhel v. 75, on the earlier use of the ti for the long Latin i, in Roman Consular coins.

[75]Montfauc. ii. 226. (Engl. Ed.) — The word in its more usual orthography is given by many Greek writers, Christian as well as Pagan. So e. g. Strabo, Lib. xv. p. 1064 (Ed. Casaub.), ´Ηλιον όν οί Περσαι καλουσι Μιθραν also the Christian writer ustin Martyr, pp. 29 6, 304 (Ed. Colon.): &c.

[76]Scaliger on iifuseb. Chronic, p. 106. (Lugd. Bat. 1606.) It is properly admissible, he says, in such words as Αντωνεινος Σαβεινος Αατεινος; but not in words like Τειμητης Νεικη, &c, though frequent on coins and gems.

[77]” Sed et Τειταν prima syllabu per duas Grcecas vocales e et t scripta, omnium nominum quae apud nos inveniuntur magis fide dignum est.”

[78]Says Prof. Stuart, ubi supra; ” When Heinrichs observes that Plutarch and other late Greek writers do not employ u, but only t in such cases, this proves nothing against the method in question: for the less usual method of orthography would naturally be that which best comported with the writer’s design of partial concealment.” My plea for the archaic spelling goes, it will be seen, further than this.

[79]See my Note 6 , p. 241 supra..

[80]“Sed et Christus, inquit, (i. e. the Gnostic teacher,) litterarum est octo.” (Irenaeus i. 12.) In order to having which number, as Grabe observes, the word must be written Χριστος. — I may add that, in the somewhat similarly enigmatic figure of an acrostic, the Sibyl (like Irenaeus) used Χριστος for Χριστος So B. viii.; cited approvingly alike by Constantine, ap. Euseb. Ad Sanct. c. 18; and by Augustine, C. D. xviii. 23.

[81]“Omnes qui censentur vocabulo Christiano, quos Dominus 7000 tempore persecutions Jezabel, etfugte Eliae, relinquisse se dicit…Quod autem numerum 7000 ad Christianorum nomen diximus pertinere, supputa Graece έπτακεισχωειλιους ετ Χρειστιανους( or χριστειανους) et eundem numerum summamque reperies, id est 1946.” *[Some editions give the number as 1941: in which case one e must be eliminated from either word.] Comment on Zech. viii. 23. The passage seems to me to be one well deserving observation. See in Clarke, p. 55, the remarks on it borrowed from Scaliger.

[82]Let me here add three or four most unsuspicious testimonies of learned men to the point for which I contend, viz. the perfect admissibility of Αατεινος spelt with the ε, as a solution of the prophetic enigma. — And 1st, Malvenda the learned Dominican, in his book on Antichrist. After citing Scaliger’s vindication of Irenseus’ orthography of the word (see my p. 250 Note 5 ). he affirms their truth quite positively; ” Haec adeo vera sunt, &c.” Vol. ii. p. 195. — 2. Next, the celebrated and certainly not over-credulous Biblical critic Michaelis. In his sketch of an admissible interpretation of the Apocalypse, (ch. xxxiii. § 7 of his Introduction to the Study of the New Testament,) he thus speaks on the point now before us. ” I think it not improbable that the most ancient explanation of the mystical number 666 is the true one; according to which Αατεινος is denoted: the Greek letters in it, taken as numerals, making out precisely the number in question.” — 3. Eichhorn is just as decided as Scaliger as to the admissibility of the ε in Αατεινος, and as to Αατεινος, being the word intended. As to solutions in Latin or Hebrew he considers them, like myself, out of the question.  — 4. Ewald divides the probability between Αατεινος in the Greek, supposing 666 to be the number; and the Hebrew  Caesar Rome, supposing the number to be 616.  — 5. Professor M. Stuart, though himself advocating Ferdinand Benary’s solution of  Neron Caesar, yet admits, as we have seen, Note 4 p. 249 and Note 2 p. 251 supra, that no valid objection is maintainable on the score of orthography against Αατεινος.

[83]So Virgil AEn. i. …. geaus unde Latinum, Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Romae.

[84]“The Gentile name of Latinus, or a Latin, was in the victorious days of the Republic and Empire, almost lost in the more favorite Gentile name of Romanus, a Roman.” Faber on the Proph. ii. 346, (Ed. 1810.) Under the idea of Nero being the anti-christian man intended, Heinrichs very naturally expresses his inability to perceive why the numeral of Romanus was not rather the one given, ii. 246.

[85]´Ρωμαιοι So the Byzantine writers passim. See J. E.Clarke, pp. 173 — 176.

[86]Not on account of the languages of the Western Romano-Gothic nations: for these were not Latin, though based on the Latin; but a mix Patois, called Romaunt. See respecting the Romaunt my Chapter on the Waldenses, Vol. ii. p. 372.

[87]Jerome, as early as the time of the first Gothic invasion, applied the term to his countrymen, the Italian Romans. In his Preface to Isaiah he writes; ” Quantae diflicultatis, ut Latini nostri mihi ignoscant, si prolixius locutus fuero.” A century later, Justinian orders his Decrees to be written ” Latinis verbis inter Latinos” Index on Decretum.

[88]This is the distinctive designation given by Gibbon to the Western Papal Kingdoms after the completed division of the empire:  —  by Gibbon, almost always accurate, almost always Apocalyptic, in bis historic pictures and even phraseology! ” So Clarke, ibid. Even as regards the chief of the Latin kings, crowned “Emperor of the Romans” by the Pope, the Byzantine emperors, from after the times of Charlemagne and Lothaire I, ” refused to prostitute to the kings of Germany the title of Roman Emperors.” Gibb. ix. 195. As examples in authentic documents of this appropriation of the title by the Papal kingdoms and Popes, J. E. Clarke cites two extracts: one from an edict of the Council of Basle (A.D. 1437) which designates itself as ” copiosissimam subventionem pro unione Grmcorum cum Latinis: ” the other from a Bull of Pope Eugenius LV, of nearly the same date, which speaks of the ” sanctissima Latinoriim et Grsecorum unio.” — So again the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, &c. — It strikes me too as deserving notice, that in the German the more ancient mode of spelling the word has been retained,  —  Latcin, Lateinisch; especially as the German Empire was so long the Latin Empire, in connection with Rome.

[89]The Council of Trent, as is well known, declared the Latin Vulgate to be the only authentic version; and their Doctors have preferred it to the Hebrew and Greek text itself, though written by the prophets and apostles. — See the exemplification of this given by me in Vol. ii. p. 84, from Cardinal Ximenes.

[90]This extract is appropriately given by Bishop Newton, Clarke, and others. So too in Bale, p. 257, infra.

[91]Of other solutions of Papal application, let me first give a few in Greek, then in other languages.*[While revising this work^for my 4th Edition I observe in Malvenda, Vol. ii. pp. 194 — 199, a long list of words in solution of the enigma; but scarcely any that seem to me worth adding to my own list.]

  1. Greek. — 1. ´Η Αατινη βασιλεια: which in numbers = (8 + 30 + 1 + 300 +10 + 50 8 + 2+ 1 + 200+ 10 + 30 + 5 + 10+1) = 666. This is Mr. Clarke’s famous solution, with the more usual spelling of the word Αατινος. He illustrates the remarkable nature of the solution by a list of above 400 other kingdoms, similarly, or otherwise legitimately expressed in Greek; but of which not one amounts in the number of its name to the precise value of 666.
  2. Pareus gives, among other solutions, Ιταλικα εκκλησια = (10 + 300 + 1 + 30 + 10 + 20 + 1 + 5 + 20 + 20 + 30 +8 + 200+ 10 + 1) = 666. Here the AEolic termination of Ιταλικα given may perhaps be considered legitimate, the Latin being of AEolic origin. I have tried the names of every other national Church instead of IraXiKa (Italian); — viz. Greek, Nestorian, Eutychian, Jacobite, Abyssinian, Armenian, English, Lutheran, Swedish, &c.: but none else answers.
  3. Παπεισκος , (with the diphthong), given in the Codex Claromontanus of Irenseus (Clarke, p. 48): which in numerals = 80 + 1 +80 + 5 + 10 + 200 + 20 + 70 + 200= 666. — I give this for its curiosity, not correctness; the proper word for Pope being of course Παπας But what the date of this marginal or interpolated reading? Was it before the xiith century? And is it the memorial of an unknown Greek Christian, suspecting the true character of the Popes us Antichrist, even before the Waldenses? See my Vol. ii. pp. 394, 420, &c.   Αποσατης ,an apostate; advocated by Wraugham and Faber. †[i. e. in the Sacred Calendar. His original solution was Αατεινος] Of which the number (if the ς be taken as the numeral ς’ = 6) stands thus; (1 + 80 + 70 + 6 + 1 + 300 + 8 + 200) = 666. — The objection is, that the Greeks never in their ισοψηφιαso counted the οτ as contracted into the numeral ς’: this latter having its origin not from any combination of σ and τ, (a strange idea!) but from the digamma.‡[Not so, objects Mr. Eabett, p. 18; not from the diganvma; but “from the 6th Letter of the Samaritan Alphabet.” He refers to Beverege’s Arithmet. Chronol. p. 215. — If Mr. R. will read the learned summary of Eekhel on the subject, Vol. iv. pp. 383 — 390, he will see that the ς’ came from the digamma, and the digamma from the Phoenician or Hebraic Alphabet. ” De episemi Vau [sive nota. VI] origine et natura, deinde et valore, et cum digamma iEolico nexu, hie nonnulla disputabimus,” &c. — As to Mr. R.’s statement, as if from the learned Bishop Blomfield, that “the construction of the sigma-tau did not take its origin till the 13th or 14th century,” I do not understand it. Eekhel, p. 383, gives all its various forms on the old Syrian, Greek, and Roman coins; and ς as the most usual. But, as to its numeral value, it was never used on Mr. Faber’ s principle, for or, so far as I know; and such a use indeed seems to me not only absurd, but incredible.] Its form ς’ was assumed afterwards. Thus Iremeus notices the number of περιστερα a dove, as 801; which arose from counting the σ and τ as 200 and 300. The same as regards Χρισος or Χρεισος §[See p. 251 Note 4 .] — Mr. Faber suggests that the mystery might consist in this very circumstance of the coincidence in form between the two signs being that which was after wards to arise. But the objection of any such origin attaching to it as from sigma-tau, and of any such numeral use as of sigma-tau above-stated, seems obviously and altogether fatal. Moreover, were the mystery what Mr. F. makes it, how could the Christians of St. John’s time be reasonably set on calculating the number?
  4. In Latin (see Clarke p. 60) we have, 1. ticarius generalis dei interris: which is said, I think, to have heeu the appellation given to the Pope in the Council of Trent; and of which the successive numeral letters are V= 6, 1 = 1, C = 100, 1=1, V = 5, L= 50, 1=1, D = 500, 1 = 1, 1 = 1, 1 = 1; altogether 666.-2. That of Irenochoraeus, Vicarius Filii Dei: of which Fleming’s Editor (Ed. 1793) says, p. 138, that it was inscribed by some one of the Popes over the door of the Vatican. — 3. Walter Brute (says Foxe iii. 185) proposed dux cleri. To which let me add, 4. from Bishop Bedell, Paulo V. Vice Deo. I made mention, p. 182 supra, of a Jesuit placing the picture of Pope Paul V at the head of a tower of Theses dedicated to him, with the inscription underneath, ” Paulo V Vice- Deo, Christiana Reip. Monarches Invietissimo, et Tontificice Omnipotent im Conservatori Acerrimo:” the copies of which Theses were sent as Novels from Rome. “This new title Vice-Deo,” *[It was, however, by no means new. See what I have quoted from Innocent’s Decretals, p. 182, Note 4 supra; and, p. 158, of Pope Synimachus, some 800 years yet earlier.] says Bedell’s Biographer (p. 68), ” and the addition of Omnipotentice gave much matter of wonder at Venice. And the next day it was noised about the city that this was the picture of Antichrist; for that the inscription pavlo v vice deo contained exactly 666, the number of the Beast.” It was Bedell himself who made the discovery, and communicated it to Paolo and the chief Divines; by whom it was laid before the Duke and Senate of Venice. Burnet says that it was entertained as if it had come from heaven; and was publicly preached on, as certain evidence that the Pope was Antichrist.

III. In Hebrew the most famous perhaps Romiith, as the feminine said to mean Roman, and supposed to agree with Hebrew words for Kingdom, Beast, or Church. But it is feminine, and so not the “name of a man.” Moreover Mr. Clarke (p. 59) asserts that “Wi does not mean Roman, but Rome. Similar to which is that which Foxe gives in his Eicasmi in Apoc., Romanus,

  1. Let me add a solution given in Arabic, in a Letter from Persia, by my late

lamented friend Robert Money, Esq., of the Bombay Civil Service. It is the Arabic

[92]It may be well to give a few chief examples, for the reader’s satisfaction, of other than Papal reference; whether as applied to Paganism, Protestantism, or MOHAMMEDANISM.

  1. Of these, 1st, the most plausible Latin solution is perhaps the one proposed by Bossuet in his Apocalyptic Exposition. He suggests the name Biocles Augustus, as designating the great Pagan Imperial persecutor Diocletian; and of which the numeral letters amount to the required sum as follows: (D = 500 + 1 = 1 + C = 100 + L = 50 + V= 5 + V = 5 + V= 5) = 666. — But in the first place the objection occurs of its being a solution in Latin, whereas there is every reason (as before observed by me) to believe that Greek was the language intended: and one too in which more than half the letters are numerally valueless. Further, if Diodes was the original name of Diocletian, it was laid aside altogether on his elevation. Never was such a conjunction of titles seen, or heard of, as that of Diodes Augustus. See my examination of the Romish Praeterist Apocalyptic Scheme, in the Appendix to my Vol. iv. For Ewald’s and Benary’s Hebrew solution referring to Nero, see p. 253.
  2. 1. Such are the various words absurdly coined in Greek, Latin, Hebrew, with a view to its application to Luther: — e. g. Δουθερανα; the proper Greek version of his name being of course Αυθερυς Αυθηρος Αοθερος, or Αοθηρος: also Σαξονειος, the Saxon; Σαξονικος being_ the proper adjectival form: — again, in Latin, Martin Lauter; and in Hebrew [Lulther), with the absurd insertion . See Clarke, pp. 52, 58. 2. Equally absurd is that devised against Huss (apud Malvenda ii. 199), ΙεανΨς.
  • Here the most famous is that proposed by Genebrard, (Archbishop of Aix in Provence about 1580,) and followed by Massuet, viz .Μαομετις or Μοαμετις , to designate Mahomet. Bishop “Walmsley adopts it, and says that its orthography is established by the use of the word in Euthymius, Cedrenus, and Zonaras. And, with its orthography thus vouched for, so plausible did it appear to a learned writer in the British Review, No. 36, that he made it almost the basis of his scheme of Apocalyptic interpretation. — Strange indeed must it seem to a classical reader, even prior to examination, that the Greek Byzantines should have selected for a masculine appellative a termination in ig, properly feminine; not to say too that they should entirely leave unexpressed the Arabic guttural h, beginning the second syllable. And in fact, on examination, the asserted use of the word by Euthymius, Cedrenus, and Zonaras, turns out to be a direct falsehood. Mr. Clarke thus states the real facts of the case in regard of its use by the Byzantine Greeks; and, after personal examination, so far as I have had the opportunity, I can authenticate in good part his statements:  —  ” There is nothing more false than this assertion; for, of the seven different ways in which Mohammed’s name is written in Euthymius and the Byzantine historians, not one is the orthography in question. The seven different modes of writing his name are Μωαμετ Μωαμεδ Μωαμεθ Μουαμεδ Μουαμεθ Μουχουμετ and Μαχουμετ” Clarke, pp. 53, 54.*[His authorities are Euthymius, Nicetas, Cedrenus, Cananus, Zonaras, Theophanes, Constantine Porphyrogenitus, and Cantacuzenus.] How could Mr. Burgh permit himself to write, as he has, (pp. 257, 446) that ” the number 666 has by some been applied to Pagan, and by some to Papal Rome; — by the Protestant to the Pope, by the Papist to Luther, and by others to Mahomet; and with just as good warrant in all cases?” Not to speak of other points that have been fully discussed above, had Luther or Mahomet that local connection with the seven hills which Mr. B. acknowledges that the Beast must have?

[93]Let me just add, though not seeing reason to suppose any such chronological mystery in the word, that two curious chronological solutions of the word have been suggested; the one anti-Papal, the other Papal. The one is that of the Magdeburgh Centuriators; who suggest that it was in the year A.D. 666 that the Papal command was issued by Pope Vitalian that public worship should he alone in Latin. — A view suggested by our English Protestant Centuriator Bale also; though not without reference too to the Aartivoc.. “Vitellianus oratores monachos in Angliam misit,..circa A.D. 666, qui a Christo nato numerus est nominis Bestioe, ut fluctuantes in suscepta fide Papistica confirmarent, et ut Antichristi charactere credentes suos signarent. Horas Latinas, cantiones Latinas, ceremonias missas et idolatrias Latinas, aliasque inanes nugas, cereinonias, &c, omnes in templis Latine fieri disposuit, juxta Graecam dictionem Aartivoq, qua? per literas numerales prsedictum Bestise numerum perficit.” Script. Cent. i. p. 71. The other is the application of the Beast’s number to the duration of Mahommedanism and Mahommed, made by Pope Innocent III, in his Convocatory Bull to the 4th Lateran Council. After mentioning the Christians’ possession of the Holy Land, &c, till the time of Gregory I, and a little later, he says; ” Sed ex tunc quidam perditionis filius Machomettus pseudo-propheta surrexit….Cujus perfidia etsi usque ad haec tempora invaluerit, confidimus tamen in Domino quod finis hujus BestiiB appropinquat: cujus numerus, secundum Apocalypsim Joannis, intra sexcenta sexaginta sex clauditur…Ex quibus jam pcene sexcenti sunt anni completi.” * A.D. 1213. (Hard, vii. 3.) Not very long after this Roger Bacon expressed the same opinion. ” He interprets the prophetic number 666 as indicating the appointed term of the Mahometan apostasy; and joyfully anticipates the final downfall both of its empire and creed, as even then at hand, “aut per Tartaros (Holaghou Khan), aut per Christianos.” So in his Opus Majus, p. 167, says Forster; who himself interprets the 2nd Beast as symbolizing Mahommedanism. Hist, of Mahommedanism, i. 232. For Joachim Abbas’ curious solution, making the first 6 of the numeral signify the world’s six ages, &c, — see my sketch of his Apocalyptic Scheme, in the App. to Vol. iv.

[94]The Rapture Will Be Canceled, Ch. 12, N. Arthur 2014.

[95]Ibid.

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